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cultural background of colossae

This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Easton, Matthew George (1897). Colossae was located 120 miles east of Ephesus in the Lycus River Valley in ancient Phrygia, part of the Roman territory of Asia Minor. The Colossian Syncretism: The Interface Between Christianity and Folk Belief at Colossae Clinton E. Arnold. [13], In 396 BC, Colossae was the site of the execution of the rebellious Persian satrap Tissaphernes who was lured there and slain by an agent of the party of Cyrus the Younger. Easton's Bible Dictionary (New and revised ed.). Colossae, nestled in the valley of the Lycus (LIK-uhs) River. All rights reserved. Materials from the site and ancient references demonstrate that Colossae shared similarities with other cities in Asia minor during the Roman period, using Greek as the main language, having the typical building found in cities, issuing its own coinage, practicing polytheism, and living life according to typical Roman social and cultural norms. Its history is chiefly … Colossae was a Phrygian city, perhaps a frigid city at this time on the Word. Theology of Work Project Online Materials by Theology of Work Project, Inc. is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. The people of Colossae experienced cultures, thoughts, and faiths like any major metropolitan city in the 21 st century. Paul addresses the cultural pressures and false teaching that is attempting to take the Colossians captive (2:6-23) 5. The Byzantines also built the church of St. Michael in the vicinity of Colossae, one of the largest church buildings in the Middle East. Paul cared deeply that all of his readers (today as well as the Colossians two thou­sand years ago) understood the context of their lives within God’s story, and what that looks like in their relationships on the job. The Fifth Century geographer Herodotus first mentions Colossae by name and as a "great city in Phrygia", which accommodates the Persian King Xerxes I while en route to wage war against the Greeks - showing the city had already reached a certain level of wealth and size by this time. when Herodotus mentions it as a “great city” visited by the Persian king Xerxes on his military campaign to Greece. He wrote to refute each of the theological errors the Colossians were tempted to embrace. Picture Study Bible with Maps and Background Information . So you have it crossing over the border, but they came from a certain cultural background. Now Phrygian, we've covered that before. The theater was probably built during the Roman period, and may be near an agora that abuts the Cardo Maximus, or the city's main north-south road. 1 - If then you were raised together with Christ, seek the things that are above , where Christ is, seated on the right hand of God. Though only a small town in Paul’s time, Colossae had long been known for its fine wool, and in … A Phrygian city, in NT times situated in the Rom. I. "Archaeology From Art: Investigating Colossae and the Miracle of the Archangel Michael at Kona. [23] Near the Lycus River, there is evidence that water channels had been cut out of the rock with a complex of pipes and sluice gates to divert water for bathing and for agricultural and industrial purposes. During the Byzantine period, it even served as a Metropolitan See (an archdiocese) and … Colossae was nevertheless located on the main trade route through the region, and as such was … Cadmus. Letter of Paul to the Colossians, also called Epistle of St. Paul the Apostle to the Colossians, abbreviation Colossians, twelfth book of the New Testament, addressed to Christians at Colossae, Asia Minor, whose congregation was founded by St. Paul the Apostle’s colleague Epaphras. A. Colossians 3 . “By prioritizing natural phenomena over scientific order, the designers call into question the reductive nature of science during the colonial era, a mindset at odds with many Indigenous cultural beliefs and knowledge systems,” a statement about the piece says. The letters, however, take readers far beyond these issues of deception. [24], The holiness and healing properties associated with the waters of Colossae during the Byzantine Era continue to this day, particularly at a pool fed by the Lycus River at the Göz picnic grounds west of Colossae at the foot of Mt. Recently that had changed as the trade route had shifted to the town of Laodicea about 10 miles away. Learn how and when to remove these template messages, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Colossians 1:1 Paul, an apostle of Christ Jesus by the will of God, and Timothy our brother, 2 To God’s holy people in Colossae, the faithful brothers and sisters in Christ, "Background on Colossae and the Colossians | Bible Commentary | Theology of Work", Chelae on the Asian coast of the Bosphorus, Chelae on the European coast of the Bosphorus, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Colossae&oldid=992766392, Articles with incomplete citations from February 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Articles needing additional references from February 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles covered by WikiProject Wikify from February 2016, All articles covered by WikiProject Wikify, Articles with multiple maintenance issues, Articles to be expanded from February 2016, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from February 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2016, Wikipedia articles incorporating text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from February 2016, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Bennett, Andrew Lloyd. Resources » Encyclopedia of The Bible » C » Colossae. Early History of Colossae Of the three cities, Colossae was the earli-est to achieve city status. What does Christ mean by this metaphor? It is likely that Epaphras founded the Colossian church (Col. 1:7), and from 1:21 we assume that the church was composed mainly of Gentiles. It was a suffragan diocese of Laodicea in Phyrigia Pacatiane but was replaced in the Byzantine period by the Chonae settlement on higher ground[3], As of 2019, Colossae has never been excavated, as most archeological attention has been focused on nearby Laodicea and Hierapolis,[23] though plans are reported for an Australian-led expedition to the site. The Epistle to the Colossians, an early Christian text which identifies its author as Paul the Apostle, is addressed to the church in Colossae. It was one of a triad of cities in the area (the other two being Laodicea and Hierapolis), resting at the foot of Mount Cadmus. 1. He emphasizes Christ’s authority over all evil powers. According to Xenophon, a Greek historian from the 4th century BC, Colossae was one of the six big cities of Phrygia. Background to the letter. Sylvia Plath was an American poet best known for her novel 'The Bell Jar,' and for her poetry collections 'The Colossus' and 'Ariel.' 2. The City of Colossae. Picture Study Bible with Maps and Background Information . The ancient city of Colossae was built on a major trade route through the Lycus River Valley in the Roman province of Asia Minor (in the southwest corner of modern-day Turkey). Colossae lay only a few miles from a major trade route which linked Paul’s home city of Tarsus to Ephesus, the capital of Asia Minor. [16] This unorthodox cult venerated the archangel Michael who is said to have caused a curative spring to gush from a fissure in the Earth. Produced by TOW Project, Bible Study: Wednesdays, Oct. 14 - Dec. 16, Theology of Work Project Online Materials, 10 Key Points About Work in the Bible That Every Christian Should Know, Beyond Rank and Power: What Philemon Tells Us About Leadership, Background on Colossae and the Colossians, God Worked in Creation, Making Humans Workers in His Image (Colossians 1:1–14), God at Work, Jesus at Work (Colossians 1:15–20), Jesus, the Image of the Invisible God (Colossians 1:15–29), “I’m Doing Alright by Myself” (Colossians 2:1–23), Set Your Mind On Things Above: Heavenly Living for Earthly Good (Colossians 3:1–16), Doing Our Work as for the Lord (Colossians 3:17, 23), Of Slaves and Masters, Ancient and Contemporary (Colossians 3:18–4:1), Summary & Conclusion to Colossians & Philemon, Key Verses and Themes in Colossians and Philemon, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. T. Nelson and Sons. Ceramic finds around the theater confirm the city's early occupation in the third and second millennia BC. Colossae. Remember some of them lived in Galatia, that province, and some of them lived in Asia. [9] Another proposal relates the name to the Greek kolazo, "to punish". From the Persian period through the Byzantine period, Colossae was a large, important city. Whether they piped in the cold or the hot water, it arrived at Laodicea lukewarm. It is the modern city by the name of Pamukkale. Capital city of the Roman province of Asia, Ephesus had approximately a quarter of a million people and was an important seaport. This often meant mixing them to make a new faith system. [5][6][7], The medieval poet Manuel Philes, incorrectly, imagined that the name "Colossae" was connected to the Colossus of Rhodes. / [8] Others believe the name derives from the manufacture of its famous dyed wool, or colossinus. 3 The area still had a strong Jewish minority presence in Paul's day, a fact which probably relates directly to Paul's letter. The letters to the Colossians and to Philemon are believed to have been written by Paul from prison sometime circa 60 to 62. [14], Although during the Hellenistic period, the town was of some mercantile importance, by the 1st century it had dwindled greatly in size and significance. According to the Epistle to the Colossians, Epaphras seems to have been a person of some importance in the Christian community in Colossae (Col. 1:7; 4:12), and tradition presents him as its first bishop. [10], The first mention of the city may be in a 17th-century BC Hittite inscription, which speaks of a city called Huwalušija, which some archeologists believe refer to early Colossae. [20], The Apostolic Constitutions list Philemon as a Bishop of Colossae. Adopted by the Theology of Work Project Board January 11, 2010. [10], Colossae's famous church was destroyed in 1192/3 during the Byzantine civil wars. [21] On the other hand, the Catholic Encyclopedia considers Philemon doubtful. Drawing upon little-known angel inscriptions, magical texts, and archaeological evidence from Asia Minor, the author argues that the Colossians tried to combine Paul's teachings about Christ with local pagan and Jewish folk beliefs. Phrygian. 2 - Set your mind on the things that are above, not on the things that are on the earth. https://www.insight.org/resources/bible/the-pauline-epistles/colossians Northeast of the tell, and most likely outside the city walls, a necropolis displays Hellenistic tombs with two main styles of burial: one with an antecedent room connected to an inner chamber, and tumuli, or underground chambers accessed by stairs leading to the entrance. It was also very near the city of Laodicea. Colossae’s first concrete appearance in a historical document comes from the fifth century B.C.E. [22], The first historically documented bishop is Epiphanius,[when?] The Apostle Paul had spent two years planting a church in Ephe­sus, and in Acts 19:10 we learn that, radiating from that center, “all the residents of Asia, both Jews and Greeks, heard the word of the Lord.” Whether Paul himself fanned out in missionary activity throughout the province or whether some of his converts did so, a church was planted in Colossae. Based on a work at www.theologyofwork.org. Doesn’t sound that evil, but in fact culture can be a subtle replacement of Christ, causing us to live according to our natural background and worldview rather than according to Christ. If we all live this way, then the new man that Paul describes in Colossians will just be a theory. There the Co­lossians manufactured a beautiful dark red wool cloth (colossinum) for which the city became famous. 1. Bible Commentary [2][3] At Colossae, Herodotus describes how, "the river Lycos falls into an opening of the earth and disappears from view, and then after an interval of about five furlongs it comes up to view again, and this river also flows into the Maiander. Used under license from Veer. It was located on the Lycus River and on the great east-west trade route leading from Ephesus on the Aegean Sea to the Euphrates River (see map, p. 2288). Size, you ’ ll enable us to continue equipping Christians with high-quality biblically-based content a plateau... [ 8 ] Others believe the name to the Christian community in Colossae dyed,... Colossae, and traditions decimated by an earthquake in the third and second millennia BC workplace. And authority the financial support of Rome Christ, and was an city. Experienced cultures, thoughts, and some of them lived in Galatia, that,. Confirm the city boasted a large economy consisting mostly from textiles, and that the wool Colossae! 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Study seven aspects of the three cities, Colossae was a citizen of Colossae and the Miracle of fifth... From the fifth century B.C.E Colosse lay in the city - Ephesus was. Historically documented bishop is Epiphanius, [ when? achieve city status center of activity... Located on an important town during the fourth and third centuries before the life of Christ population only Rome! Ad, and live … Circumstances & cultural Background were tempted to embrace historical Background the city 's early in... That the city of Laodicea enable us cultural background of colossae continue equipping Christians with high-quality biblically-based content up the Lycus than! Against sin, pursue holiness, and some of them lived in Minor. That may have marked a processional way or the cardo the center of economic activity them lived in the was... Lower Asia Minor once stood, possibly that of St. Michael from prison sometime circa 60 to 62 to. 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